Creating a Scalable Prototype
of a Sustainable, Ag-centric
Community in Waimānalo

1) Remove invasives… convert to lumber, biochar and mulch.
2) Reforest with endemics, fruit and nut trees, shrubs, vines, groundcover perennials, (food, fiber, floral, fuel, feed, farmaceutical, etc.).
3) Test soil nutrients, nutrient uptake per plant, nutrient absorption extra- and intra-cellular per person per plant or DRI-based meal.
4) Calculate minimum sq ft, energy and water needed to grow highest, quickest and most comprehensively, nutrient dense yield crops that cover 100% DRI per person.
5) Calculate need for ‘Ai Love Nalo, Hā’ehuola, family and friends.

1) ulu, coconut, mango, mountain apple

1a) small storage area to test various combinations of indigenous, carbon negative soil amendments (compost, mulch, biochar, algae, coconut coir, mycelium, EM), for use throughout farm and greenhouse.

2) ulu, coconut, banana, avocado, papaya, macadamia nut

2a) processing & classrooms – 2520sq ft, 7 bays (12’x30’ each), consider solar panels, vertical wind, pyrolysis machine and acquion battery ban, rainwater harvesting
Bay 1: 20’ walk-in refrigerated container (coolbot w split unit a/c), upper loft w/shower, sink and laundry
Bay 2: food truck, back area and upper loft for solar dehydrator container, flour mill, industrial juicer, coconut processing, etc.
Bay 3: classrooms w loft for Hā’ehuola and La’aulapa’au
Bay 4 & 5: Dojo for lua, meditation, ho’oponopono
Bays 6 & 7: Biochar – carbon negative energy and indigenous fertilizer biogasification unit, wood chipper, battery bank, indigenous microorganism microbrewing, foliant spray pump, solar dehydrator for feedstock and char, storage pads, scales, bags

3) lychee & dragon eye, kukui nut, vee pear, avocado

4) jabong/citrus maximus, pruning and grafting tahitian lime, meyer lemon, ka’u orange, tangerine, etc

5) farm vehicles, equipment, tools, supplies, storage, office and exercise facility (consider solar panels, vertical wind, battery bank, rainwater harvesting)

ZONES cont.
6) living/working/learning spaces, starfruit, lilikoi, cherimoya, ti leaf, banana, olena, plumeria, mai lei, etc (consider solar panels, vertical wind, battery bank, rainwater harvesting)

7) Avatar/Ewok Village – treehouse in banyan tree w skywalks in upper canopy mango grove and little landings per tree or mini cluster. Possible zip lines. Look into bioluminescent plants to glow at night. Thin mango grove, haul, dry/cure, mill, use for flooring or furniture or monetize. Graft keiki mango onto trunks of thinned grove. Ti Leaf, indigenous Bamboo, banana, macadamia nut, etc

8) ulu, banana, papaya, guava

8a) greenhouse – grow sprouts, microgreens, mushrooms, leafy greens, tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant, squash, zucchini, cabbage, green onion, garlic, herbs, spices, etc to satisfy daily DRI needs that food forest doesn’t cover… solar, wind power w battery bank, rainwater harvesting, benchtop growbeds w pressurized drip on timers and/or w moisture sensors, foliant spray.

9) carbo farming/ food forest/ La’aulapa’au – future site for MakerSpace to build sustainable, modular, mobile, offgrid structures, as well as fabricate and repair equipment, tools, etc. test usda methodologies for carbon farming and food forestry and emphasis on La’aulapa’au medicinal plants throughout property, but concentrated focus in this zones.

Healthy Food System

‘Ai Love Gardens, an ag-centric, sustainable community development project, is an ideal opportunity to feature Governor Ige’s leadership in adopting and committing to the implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) via the formalized partnership with the State of Hawaii as a UN Local2030 chapter.

Create a Federation of Cooperatives

Cooperatives help address the inherent tensions and conflicts of interest between producers (most profit) and consumers (lowest price, highest quality) by becoming both… prosumers. Community-owned, needs-based and commodity-oriented businesses create the basis for self-sufficiency and determination.

Clean Energy


Smart Roads

Solar Roads, Sidewalks, Driveways, Parking Lots, etc with Wi-Fi

Green Building

Living Building Challenge level

Waste Management

Bio & Phyto-remediation

Water Management

Rainwater harvesting, Catchments, Retention ponds, Lo’i, Swales, etc

Smart Mesh Networks

Internet of Things

Closed-loop Manufacturing

Makerspace, Open Source Ecology

Regenerative Agriculture/Food System / Vertical Farming
Clean Transportation

Electric, Hybrid, Hydrogen

Credit Unions

Sustainable Innovation for Conservation, Green Building & Ecosystem Restoration

This building coop aims to create a local system for turning Hawaii’s invasive timber into innovative, cottage industry solutions. The steps are summarized as tree harvesting, lumber processing, manufacturing building components, and native ecosystem restoration and agroecology.


Carefull felling of undamaged logs cut to desired lenght.


Active restoration program to replace with native species.


Forklift, Crane, or winch loads & unloads, flatbed truck / trailer


Sawmill cuts rough lumber, treat green, and sticker for seasoning.

Process Wood

Cut lumber and fabricate to desired component dimensions.


Build structures and reduce cost with economies of scale.

'Ai Love Gardens








FAB Components

Process Lumber



Community Scale, Agricultural Models

Individual Residential Lots

Each home has its own garden, typically in the backyard, to supplement the household consumption of vegetables and fruits.

Pocket Neighborhood

A group of homes share a garden space that can be connected to other pockets, forming a “green belt”, which typically fits within a neighborhood block.

Community Garden

This non-commercial garden is tended collectively by participating gardeners. They can be temporary spaces or held in trust by local governments or nonprofits.

Edible Park

Public landscape with mixed uses, including food production which privileges the growing of edible plants for harvesting or foraging over ornamental plants.

Development Supported Agriculture

A residential real estate development that incorporates preservation or incubation of agriculture land use as its primary organizing structure.

Food Forest

Seven-layer polyculture food production in perennial forest ecosystems, intermixing fruits trees, herbs, vines, shrubs, and perennial vegetables.

Street Planting

Public right-of-ways that incorporate food production involving orchard-lined streets, fruit boulevards, planting strips or tree lawns, and edible front yards.

Group Gap Food Hub

Food collection, processing, and distribution. The food hub fills the gap between production and consumption, and generates jobs and revenue. A flour mill for ulu, kalo and u’ala is one example.

Vertical Farming

13,500 square foot vertical greenhouse on a 1/10 acre site can grow 100,000 lbs of produce annually, equivalent to 10 acres of traditional farming

Agroecology provides an excellent methodology for ag-centric community development projects.

Agroforesty or food forest systems can yield an average 16.94 tons per acre or .78 lbs per sq ft given proper plant/crop selection.

If viewed from a consumption by weight perspective, fruit & vegetable production can account for about 20 people per acre per year with high nutritional value, increased biodiversity, carbon sequestration, soil remediation, zero toxic chemicals, cleaner water, lower water use, increased precipitation, etc. All of which help significantly align with the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

Over-Story Climax Species

Estimated Yields


tons per Acre

Estimated yield per acre 100% Density 75% Density
Breadfruit/’Ulu 13.35 tons 10 tons
Avocado 4.6 tons 3.45 tons
Jackfruit 7.59 tons 5.69 tons
Mango 8 tons 6 tons
How is this calculated?

Yields based on aggregated average of Mango, Breadfruit, Avocado and Jackfruit production at 75% planting density. Decreasing density allows for increased Understory & Ground Cover diversity and food production.

Understory Species

Estimated Yields


tons per Acre

Estimated yield per acre 100% Density 50% Density
Banana 8.5 tons 4.25 tons
Citrus 24 tons 12 tons
Starfruit 20 tons 10 tons
Guava 8.6 tons 4.3 tons
How is this calculated?

Estimated Yields based on aggregated average of Bananas, Citrus, Starfruit, & Guava production at 50% average planting density

Ground Cover Shade Tolerant Species

Estimated Yields


tons per Acre

Estimated yield per acre 100% Density 25% Density
Taro/Kalo 10 tons 2.5 tons
Sweet Potato/U’ala 9.6 tons 2.4 tons
Turmeric/Olena 9 tons 2.25 tons
Ginger 20 tons 5 tons
How is this calculated?

Estimated Yields based on aggregated average of Sweet Potato, Turmeric, Ginger & Taro at 25% planting density.

Edible Landscapes

Basic Plan

Maintenance Requirements: 1 hour per month

Largest Impact & Lowest Maintenance.
* Monthly Maintenance Plans available

Recommended for all homebuyers.

What are Edible Landscapes?

Our edible landscapes are inspired by traditional food forest gardens systems… designed to be low maintenance, practical, healthy and beautiful, these gardens create a cultural connection to the past while providing abundance for the future.

‘Ulu (Breadfruit)

  • Ma’afala variety.
  • Foodshed Impact: 711 lbs of food per year once mature
  • Begins bearing fruit in 2 years, optimum production at 5 years

Choice of One Fruit Tree from the following…

  • Non-Canoe Plant Fruit Trees
    • Avocado
    • Lemon
    • Lime
    • Kau Orange
    • Guava
    • Starfruit
    • Mango
    • Wax Jambu
    • Sapodilla
    • and more.
  • Mai’a (Bananas)
  • Noni (Indian Mulberry)
  • ‘Ohi’a Ai (Mountain Apple)
  • Kukui (Candlenut):
    • Technically edible in small quantities, but best for fuel, oils or other purposes.

Kalo (Taro)

  • Clumping Varieties
  • Foodshed Impact: 1 lbs per square ft year

‘Ape (Tannia/Elephant Ear)

  • Ornamental & edible root

‘Uala (Sweet Potato)

  • Ground Cover
  • Foodshed Impact: 1bs per 2.5 sq ft per yeare

‘Olena (Turmeric)

  • Clumping Varieties
  • Foodshed Impact: 1 lbs per square ft year

Ki (Ti)

  • Cultural significance
  • Brings color to garden
  • Tolerant of shade

‘Awapuhi Kuahiwi (Shampoo Ginger)

  • Shade preferred
  • Cosmetic & medicinal uses

Additional possible Canoe Plants

  • Ko (Sugar Cane)
  • ‘Awa (Kava)
    • Shade tolerant, prefers shade when young
  • Niu (Coconut)
  • ‘Ohe (Bamboo)
    • Requires clumping varieties which can be expensive

Edible Landscapes

Premium Plan

Maintenance Requirements: Daily Harvest of Fruits & Vegetables.

Daily Harvest of Fruits & Vegetables.
* Monthly Maintenance Plans available


What are Edible Landscapes?

Our edible landscapes are inspired by traditional food forest gardens systems… designed to be low maintenance, practical, healthy and beautiful, these gardens create a cultural connection to the past while providing abundance for the future.

Choice of One Fruit Tree from the following…

  • Non-Canoe Plant Fruit Trees
    • Avocado
    • Lemon
    • Lime
    • Kau Orange
    • Guava
    • Starfruit
    • Mango
    • Wax Jambu
    • Sapodilla
    • and more.
  • Mai’a (Bananas)
  • Noni (Indian Mulberry)
  • ‘Ohi’a Ai (Mountain Apple)
  • Kukui (Candlenut):
    • Technically edible in small quantities, but best for fuel, oils or other purposes

Choice of One Fruit Tree from the following…

  • Okinawan Spinach
  • Brazilian Spinach
  • Cranberry Hibiscus
  • Sweet Leaf Shrub
  • Holy Basil
  • African Blue Basil
  • Cuban Oregano
  • Mexican Mint Marigold
  • Lemon Balm
  • Chives
  • Rosemary
  • Lemon Grass
  • Sage
  • Thyme & more
  • Total Food Shed Impact: 40 lbs of fresh salad greens & herbs per year

Moringa “Miracle Tree”

  • Nutrient dense leaves eaten fresh or cooked
  • Edible seeds & pods used in curries & soups
  • Provides a complete plant protein

Mamaki Tea (Native)

  • Leaves used to make tea

Chaya “Tree Spinach”

  • Nutritional dense cooking greens.


  • Fresh berries
  • Foodshed Impact: 20 lbs a year per tree


  • A tropical favorite
  • Foodshed Impact: 40 lbs a year per tree


  • Great fresh or dried
  • Foodshed Impact: 35 lbs per year


  • A medicinal & ornamental plant that also helps improve soil and increase fruit tree production

Pigeon Pea

  • Beans used fresh or dried in soups, stewed and curries. Traditionally used to make dahl.


  • Low maintenance, ornamental fruit


Edible root, prefers shade


  • Edible starchy root

Warabi & Ho’io Edible Fern

  • Edible fiddlehead fern
  • Needs shade

‘Ulu (Breadfruit)

The base of Perennial Food Forest in Hawaii

Breadfruit was one of the main starch of Hawaii’s diet prior to introdution of rice and introduction of wheat. Nowadays, cultivation of rice is practically not existent in Hawaii and ‘ulu remains as one of the main local sources of starch, along with taro. It is known that groves of ‘ulu used to cover vast areas of land in the Hawaiian Islands and thoughtout the Pacifc, with other understory crops cultivated below. ‘Ulu is consumed in nature when ripe, or cooked in dishes such as ‘ulu chips, baked with butter, ‘ulu salad, or proccessed in products such as ‘ulu four.

The Perennial Forest would consist of Over-Story Climax Species
(tall trees), Understory Species (small trees), and Ground Cover
Shade Tolerant Species.


tons/acre/year of diverse crop, mainly ‘Ulu (Breadfruit) at ultimate build out.


Greater average yield harvested than conventional farming methods.


Medium to low level of Maintenance and man power needed.

Long Term Planning

Once well established, an ulu only needs to be pruned once a year and harvested 2-3 times per year. Upon each harvest add’l compost should be added around the tree and/or a cover crop of nitrogen-fxing legumes planted. Compost tea can also be added in the proper quantity during that time.


– 1 hour or less to prune per year
– 1 hour or less to harvest, 2-3 times per year
– .25 hour to add compost and compost tea, 2-3 times per year

Total labor should be less than 5 hours per tree per year per person.

Starting the Forest

How to get ‘Ulu trees?

‘Ulu trees are supplied by diferent organizations, proft and non-proft. The current increase of demand offers an opportunity to enter the breadfruit business, through propagation of breadfruit and cultivation of starter plants in Steward Farms. Another business and technology opportunity is the micropropagation of selected cultivars to maintain desirable qualities.

The preferred methods for propagation of breadfruit are (seeds are not recommended):
  • Root shoots or cuttings
  • Air layering & grafting
  • Micro propagation

Planting should occur at the onset of the rainy season at a density of up to 48 plants per acre, and irrigated as needed for the first 1-3 months of establishment. Trees usually begin fruiting within 2-3 years from planting and will reach optimal fruiting at 5-6 years. With proper care, they can continue fruiting abundantly for over 80 years.


The following nutrients are amounts used on average per acre is usually dependent upon crop, so can range from:


lbs/year/acre for nitrogen


lbs/year/acre for nitrogen


lbs/year/acre for nitrogen


lbs/year/acre for nitrogen

These nutrients can be provided by 100% “green manure” from compost, mulch, biochar, effective microorganisms (EM) and mycelium. Healthy soil is based on biodiversity and a thriving community of microorganisms. Mulch and biochar help with water retention. Mycelium and microbes are great nutrient transport networks and vehicles. The healthier the soil is, the healthier the plants are, which acts as its own pesticide, since pests primarily attack unhealthy, vulnerable plants.

Perennial Forest – Slope Planting

Sloped areas (more than 20%) that are typically not ideal for traditional annual crops are suitable for terraced tree planting using agroforestry system such as Perennial Food Forest, through terrace planting techniques.